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2019年2月24日 (日)

"melanoma"

日本全国の医学翻訳フリーランサーのみなさん、こんにちは。

Medical Translator NARITAです。

日曜日も医学翻訳の仕事、お疲れさまです。

 

イートモ対訳の見直しをしているといろいろ気付くことがあります。

今回は"melanoma"。

ライフサイエンス辞書にはメラノーマ,    黒色腫と出ています。

イートモでも「メラノーマ《黒色腫》」と記載すればいいのですが、やや見づらくややなります。

そこで、いつものように、PMDAサイトで調べてみました。

黒色腫のヒットのほうがメラノーマよりも圧倒的に多い。ヒット数が多ければいいというわけではありませんが、指標にはなります。

また、"melanoma"と言えばニボルマブ。商品名オプジーボ。

添付文書を見ると、「悪性黒色腫」が使われています。

https://www.opdivo.jp/drug_info_files/drug_info/opdivo/pi/10010017/OPD_PI.pdf

さらに、ライフサイエンス辞書では、

"malignant melanoma"が 悪性黒色腫 ,    悪性メラノーマ

 

以上を総合的に考慮して、イートモでは、

"melanoma"に対応する訳語として「黒色腫」、英文に"malignant melanoma"と出ている場合には、「悪性黒色腫」、と記載します。

イートモはあくまでも参考資料です。

不良対訳もまだ多いです。

危険! 初心者はご注意ください。

実際の仕事では、いつも言っているように、クライアントからの指示や用語集に従ってください。

 

なお、必要に応じて、イートモの対訳は速攻で変更します。フットワークの軽いのがイートモの良いところ。

"melanoma"を含むイートモ対訳のうち英文の部分を以下に示します。ご参考まで。

例によって、機械翻訳にかけてみるかもしれません。

                                                                                                   
 

英文

 
 

A series of in vitro studies were conducted   with Drug A in combination with Drug B to determine the effect on cell growth   inhibition in a variety of melanoma cell   lines.

 
 

Nodular melanoma   (NM)
  Superficial spreading melanoma (SSM)
  Lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM)
  Acral-lentiginous melanoma (ALM)

 
 

Additionally, Drug A is being studied in   combination with dacarbazine, interleukin-2, and melanoma   peptide vaccines in patients with metastatic melanoma   and with taxotere or GM-CSF in patients with hormone-refractory metastatic   prostate cancer.

 
 

Adjuvant B-Raf protein (BRAF) and/or immune   checkpoint inhibition may positively affect the survival of melanoma patients diagnosed at earlier stages.

 
 

Approximately half of the tumors were from   patients who had died of metastatic malignant melanoma.

 
 

As of January 1, 2017, ongoing clinical   studies include 5 studies in melanoma,   3 studies in colorectal cancer, and 1 study in non-small cell lung   cancer.

 
 

Basal cell carcinoma accounts for approximately   80% of non-melanoma skin cancers.

 
 

BRAFV600E melanoma cell lines that have acquired resistance to BRAF   inhibitors were more sensitive to the combination of Drug A and Drug B than   to Drug B alone.

 
 

Company A is committed to improving outcomes   for advanced melanoma patients.

 
 

Data on the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in the U.S. general   population are scarce as incidence rates of NMSC are not maintained in   national cancer registries.

 
 

Drug A did not significantly extend   disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with postsurgical melanoma when compared with a placebo in a phase   III study.

 
 

Drug A is indicated for the treatment of   adult patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma   with a BRAF V600 mutation.

 
 

Drug A monotherapy has not been compared   with a BRAF inhibitor in a clinical study in patients with BRAF V600   mutation-positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma.

 
 

Drug A should only be used to treat malignant melanoma   with a mutation in the BRAF gene.

 
 

Drug A was approved to treat patients with melanoma that has spread to other parts of the   body or cannot be removed by surgery, whose tumors express a gene mutation   called BRAF V600E.

 
 

Drug A was first approved in the United   States on January 1, 2014, and has since been approved in Japan, for the   treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600 mutation.

 
 

Fifteen patients with primary malignant melanoma of the vulva and two with   primary malignant melanoma of the vagina   were reviewed.

 
 

Finally, Drug A inhibited tumor   vascularization in a mouse model of melanoma.

 
 

Here, we show that polo-like kinase 1 is   overexpressed in both clinical tissue specimens and cultured human melanoma cells when compared with normal skin   tissues and cultured normal melanocytes, respectively.

 
 

In addition, objective responses were   observed in melanoma and in gastric, colorectal,   and small-cell lung cancers.

 
 

In advanced melanoma,   a patient's LDH level is often predictive of prognosis and may be a predictor   of treatment response.

 
 

In contrast, the combination of Drug A and   Drug B had little additional effect on two BRAF mutant melanoma cell lines.

 
 

In Part B, patients with BRAF-mutation   positive melanoma who had not received   prior treatment with a BRAF small-molecule inhibitor were enrolled in 4   groups in a 3 + 3 design in order to determine the recommended Part C dose of   Drug A administered concomitantly with Drug B.

 
 

In this study, escalating doses of Drug A   are being administered to patients with metastatic melanoma.

 
 

Marketing Authorization Applications were   submitted for Drug A and Drug B combination therapy in patients with BRAF   V600 mutation-positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma.

 
 

Melanoma is a cancerous lesion of skin that accounts   for nearly 75% of all skin cancer-related deaths.

 
 

Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form   of skin cancer.

 
 

Metastatic melanoma   is the most serious and life-threatening type of skin cancer and is   associated with low survival rates.

 
 

Nonclinical findings using Drug A and Drug B   in combination suggest benefits of combination treatment in mitigating BRAF   inhibitor-induced effects in patients with metastatic melanoma.

 
 

Nonclinical pharmacology studies conducted   in vitro have shown that the combination of Drug A and Drug B is synergistic   in BRAF mutant melanoma cell lines that   are sensitive to both single agents.

 
 

Non-melanoma   skin cancers constitute more than one third of all cancers in the United   States.

 
 

patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive   advanced melanoma

 
 

Patients with histologically-confirmed   cutaneous melanoma that was either   unresectable or metastatic are screened for eligibility.

 
 

Patients with stage III melanoma are generally treated by surgery to   remove the skin lesions and the nearby lymph nodes.

 
 

patients with surgically unresectable malignant melanoma

 
 

Sections from the uveal melanomas were stained using the silver nitrate   stain.

 
 

Subject A reported a Grade 3 melanoma on the forehead on Study Day 100.

 
 

Surgical excision of the lesion was   performed; histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of primary melanoma.

 
 

Ten BRAF mutant melanoma   cell lines were characterized for sensitivity to the combination of Drug A   and Drug B.

 
 

The combination therapy was first approved   in the United States on January 1, 2014 and has since been approved in   Australia, for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600 mutation.

 
 

The FDA approved Drug A to be used in   combination with Drug B to treat advanced melanoma   that has spread to other parts of the body or cannot be removed by surgery.

 
 

The in vivo effects of Drug A in combination   with Drug B were investigated in a xenograft model of human melanoma in mice.

 
 

The majority of patients studied to date   have had metastatic melanoma.

 
 

The safety and efficacy of Drug A have not   been evaluated in patients whose melanoma   tested negative for the BRAF V600 mutation.

 
 

There are about 200,000 new cases of melanoma diagnosed worldwide each year,   approximately half of which have BRAF mutations, a key target in the   treatment of metastatic melanoma.

 
 

This is a melanocyte-specific gene that has   been identified as a prognostic biomarker of clinical outcome in patients   suffering from melanoma, a cancerous   lesion of skin that accounts for nearly 75% of all skin cancer related   deaths.

 
 

This supplemental new drug application   provides updated information about the risk of melanoma   for patients receiving PUVA therapy.

 
 

We administered Drug A intravenously at a   dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 or 3 weeks in patients with   advanced melanoma, both those who had   received prior treatment with the immune checkpoint inhibitor Drug B and   those who had not.

 
 

While the introduction of BRAF inhibitors   represents a significant advance in the treatment of BRAF V600   mutation-positive metastatic melanoma   patients, limitations of this novel therapy have already been identified.

 

 

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