イートモサンプルのダウンロード【販促用】

2019年2月15日 (金)

「~のうちどちらか~のほう」

大阪の医学翻訳フリーランサーのみなさん、こんにちは。

Medical Translator NARITAです。

午後のひと時、いかがおすごしでしょうか。

 

「~のうちどちらか~のほう」関連のイートモ対訳を調べておきました。

例によってニューラルMTにかけてみるかもしれないので、そのときにイートモの和訳を紹介するかもです。

                                   
英文
A   dose not exceeding 1/100 of the dose expressing pharmacological effects or a   dose of 100 µg/human, whichever is smaller, is administered once to healthy subjects.
Any subject noted to experience virologic breakthrough that occurs after   Week 12 are required to have HCV RNA testing within 2 weeks of receipt of the   initial HCV RNA measurement or at the next scheduled visit, whichever is sooner.
It is necessary to place the label   about 6-8 cm away from the camera or in contact with the front of the camera, whichever works better.
Patients were monitored every 4 weeks until these levels were achieved,   or for 2 years, whichever was the shorter.
Progression-free survival (PFS) was   calculated from the date of random assignment to the date of first   progression or death, whichever occurred first.
Sexually transmitted disease medical records other than positive   syphilis tests must be kept 7 years past the last date of service or until   the patient's 21st birthday, whichever comes   later.
The director of the study site shall retain the essential documents to be   archived at the study site until the day specified in 1) or 2) below, whichever is later.
The head of the medical institution   will retain the essential documents to be retained at the medical institution   until the date given in 1) or 2) below, whichever   is later.
The head of the study site must retain study drug disposition records,   copies of CRFs, and source documents for the maximum period required by   applicable regulations and guidelines or for the period specified by the   sponsor, whichever is longer.
The   institutional review board (IRB) organizer will retain the IRB procedure   manual, IRB member list, review documents, notifications from the head of the   institution, records on the IRB meetings, and other similar documents until   the date given in 1) or 2) below, whichever is later.
The investigator must retain all study records and source documents for the   maximum period required by applicable regulations and guidelines or for the   period specified by the sponsor, whichever is   longer.
The investigator must retain study   drug disposition records for the maximum period specified by guidelines or   for the period specified by the sponsor,   whichever is longer.
The organizer of the institutional review   board (IRB) shall retain the written procedures of operating the IRB, the   list of IRB members, review documents, notifications from the director of the   study site, records of IRB meetings, etc. until the day specified in 1) or 2)   below, whichever is later.
This is a period from the date of   patent registration or the first date of the clinical study, whichever is later, to the date   of approval.
Total participation in the study for each subject will be   approximately ten weeks with long-term follow-up lasting until the next   episode of exacerbation or for up to 12 months,   whichever occurs first.
You may be granted a visa valid for   up to 5 years or until your passport expires,   whichever comes first.

 

さて、柿の木坂オフィスのパソコンで使っているマウスが壊れました。渋谷デスクに来ているので、ついでにマウスを買います。

マウスが壊れるくらいだから、肘にもガタがきますよね。

2019年2月12日 (火)

「同意書」

神戸にお住まいの医学翻訳フリーランサーのみなさん、こんにちは。

Medical Translator NARITAです。

 

さて、イートモ対訳の見直しをしていると、いろいろ気付くことがあります。

今回は「同意書」をどう英訳するか。

イートモで検索すればすぐわかりますが、イートモにも不良対訳が多いので、念のため調べてみることにします。

 

思い浮かぶのは、

consent form

informed consent form

の2つ。

 

CROとか製薬会社とか、それぞれのホームページに用語集のようなものを出しているようです。

それらを参考にするのもいいですが、クライアントからの指定がなければ、役所のサイトを基準にするのがいいと思います。

「治験関係の用語はPMDAサイトに準拠しました」とコメントを記載すればばっちりです。

 

PMDA先生で調べてみます。

"consent form"の検索結果 約130 件

"informed consent form"の検索結果 約114 件

つまり、consent formのほとんどのケースにinformedがセットになっていると推察されます。

件数が多ければいいというわけではないけど、1つの指標にはなります。

個々の文書を実際に見てみると、実際にセットになっています。

よって、治験への参加同意の文脈では、イートモでも基本的に"informed consent form"を使うことにします。

 

"consent form"でイートモを検索した結果です。

84件がヒットしました。

今回は和文を提示していません。

                                                                                               
英文
A copy of any changes or renewals   of the informed consent form also must be sent promptly to the study monitor.
a copy of the IRB-approved informed   consent form and other adjunctive materials
A   parent or guardian of a minor patient must also read and initial each item   before signing the informed consent form.
A sample case report form (CRF) is provided in Appendix 1, while   Appendix 2 contains a sample informed consent   form.
Additional reference is made to the   above IND777, and to the model Informed Consent   Form for Study A sent to the regulatory authority   for review on May 1, 2017.
After having been informed that participation is voluntary and that   the participants may withdraw from the study at any time, without prejudice,   the patient must sign the IRB- and sponsor-approved informed consent form in the   presence of a witness.
After the informed consent form is read to   the subject and signed by the subject, the witness should also sign the consent form, attesting the subject   freely gave that informed consent.
After the patient has signed the informed   consent form to participate in the study, a   registration sheet will be completed and faxed or emailed to the sponsor for   approval of entry of the patient onto the study.
All concomitant therapies must be recorded throughout the study beginning with   signing of the informed consent form until the end-of-study visit.
Anticipated benefits of the study drug and anticipated disadvantage to the   subjects must be described in the informed   consent form and explained to the subjects prior   to enrollment in this study.
Any changes to the informed consent form suggested by   the investigator must be approved by the sponsor before submission to the   IRB, and a copy of the approved version must be provided to the sponsor's   monitor.
Any changes to the informed consent   form suggested by the investigator must be   approved by the sponsor before submission to the IRB/IEC.
Any updates to the informed consent form will be   provided to the subject.
Appendix 1 contains a copy of a sample informed consent form.
Before implementing this study, the   protocol, the informed consent form, and other information to subjects must be reviewed by a   properly constituted institutional review board.
Before study initiation, the Investigator must have approval from the   IRB/IEC for the protocol, informed consent form, subject recruitment materials, and any other written   information to be provided to subjects.
By signing this consent form, you agree to follow   your doctor's instructions, attend all study-related visits, and perform all   study specific assessments.
By signing this consent form, you give the Sponsor permission to use material obtained from   your blood sample for the research described above.
Company A has made the change to   the informed consent form for Study A, taking into account the available data.
During a subject's participation in the study, any updates to the informed consent form and any   updates to the written information will be provided to the subject.
Each subject   must sign the informed consent form after the nature of the study has been fully explained.
Entries in the Case Report Forms are verified   using subject files, informed consent forms signed by subjects, drug accountability forms, and original   recordings from automated instruments, X-ray films, laboratory notes, etc.
explanatory   materials and consent form used   for obtaining informed consent
For the conduct of the phase III clinical studies, specific   language will be included in the informed consent   form to address the potential for impairment of   fertility.
I will receive a signed copy of   this informed consent form.
If an amendment substantially alters the study design or   increases the potential risk to the subject, the informed   consent form must be revised and submitted to the   IRB/IEC via the head of the study site for review and approval/favorable   opinion.
If the original signed informed consent form will be   filed with the subject's source documents, a memo, describing that the   original informed consent form has been filed with the subject's source documents, should be   displayed in the Regulatory Binder.
If the subject had no prior medical history or current conditions   at the time of signing informed consent form, select “No” and leave the rest of the CRF blank.
If the subject is unable to read   the informed consent form, an impartial witness should be present during the entire   informed consent discussion.
If written informed consent was obtained, enter the date informed consent form was signed by   the guardian or subject.
If you decide that you do not want   to participate in this research, you may still participate in the clinical   study and receive the study drug if you have signed the informed consent form for the   clinical study and continue to qualify for the clinical study.
If you decide to participate, you will be   asked to sign this informed consent form.
In   a correspondence dated May 1, 2017, Company A accepted the regulatory   authority's recommendation and committed to submitting an updated version of   the model informed consent form   when it became available.
Informed consent form will be sent to the subject beforehand, but will not be filled   in until the screening visit.
Once you know about the study and   the tests that will be done, you will be asked to sign this consent form to join this study.
Patients who meet all of the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion   criteria described below and who agree to voluntarily sign the informed consent form will be   considered “enrolled” into the study.
Preparation of the informed consent form must adhere   to GCP and to the ethical principles that have their origin in the   Declaration of Helsinki.
Prior to performance of any study-related activity, the informed consent form should be   signed and dated by the subject or his/her legally acceptable representative   and by the person who conducted the informed consent discussion.
Proposed   text for inclusion in the informed consent form is as follows: …
Samples collected for exploratory pharmacogenetic analysis will be   retained for up to 15 years, as indicated in the informed   consent form.
Signing   this consent form does not   take away all of your legal rights. You still have rights as a participant in   a study.
Subjects and legally acceptable   representatives must sign an informed consent form after the nature of the study has been fully explained and all   questions have been answered to the subject's satisfaction.
The "Track Changes"   mechanism in Microsoft Word should be used when making changes to the informed consent form.
The contract research organization (CRO) must   approve all informed consent forms used in the study prior to submission to the IRB.
The   date the first subject signs a study-specific informed   consent form will be defined as the start of the   study.
The document should include the date the subject signed the informed consent form and that a   signed copy was given to the subject.
The   impartial witness should sign and date the informed   consent form attesting that the information is   accurate.
The informed consent form and any other written information provided to the subject should   be revised whenever important new information becomes available that is   relevant to the subject’s consent.
The informed consent form must include a statement that the sponsor and regulatory   authorities have direct access to subject records.
The informed consent form must be dated   and signed prior to any screening procedures.
The informed consent form must have been approved by the sponsor and the investigator's   institutional review board.
The informed consent form should also   provide an explanation of the potential risk associated with QT interval   prolongation in language that can be understood by the patients.
The informed consent form should be updated or amended whenever new information becomes   available that may be relevant to the subject.
The informed consent form should   include all requirements according to local law.
The   institutional review board or ethics committee must review this protocol and   the informed consent form prior   to initiating this study.
The investigator making the explanation must date and sign or seal the informed consent form to make the   consent effective.
The investigator must keep a copy   of the signed informed consent form.
The investigator must obtain the Institutional Review Board's written approval   of the informed consent form and any other written information to be provided to the   subjects via the head of the study site, prior to the beginning of the study.
The investigator must provide the   subject or legally acceptable representative with a copy of the informed consent form and written   information about the study.
The investigator must provide the subject or legally acceptable representative   with the informed consent form and written information about the study in language that is   non-technical and easily understood.
The investigator must provide the   subject with a copy of the informed consent form and written information about the study in language that is   non-technical and easily understood.
The investigator must revise the informed consent   form whenever important new information becomes   available that is relevant to the subject's consent.
The investigator should allow time   necessary for the subject to inquire about the details of the study, then the   informed consent form   must be signed and dated by the subject and the person who conducted the   informed consent discussion.
The medical expert will assist in creating and reviewing all study-related   documents, including the sample informed consent   form and the investigator's brochure.
The protocol and the informed consent form were reviewed   and approved by the investigator's IRB before initiation of the study.
The protocol and the informed consent form will receive Institutional Review Board (IRB)/Independent   Ethics Committee (IEC) approval/favorable opinion prior to initiation of the   study.
The   purpose of this informed consent form is to give you information so that you can decide whether you   want to provide an additional blood sample(s) in conjunction with the   clinical study of Drug A in which you may participate.
The required topics to be included in the informed consent form are listed in   Appendix 1.
The   revised informed consent form   must be used to obtain consent from subjects currently enrolled in the study.
The sample informed consent form will adhere to the ethical principles that have their origin   in the Declaration of Helsinki.
The sponsor must have a copy of   written and dated approval from the Institutional Review Board for the   protocol, informed consent form, subject recruitment materials (e.g., advertisements), and any   other written information to be provided to subjects.
The sponsor will provide the investigator with an appropriate sample informed consent form which will   include all elements required by ICH, GCP, and regulatory requirements.
The study drug will not be   distributed to an investigator until the institutional review board (IRB) or   ethics committee has provided written approval of the study and informed consent form to the   investigator.
The subject agrees, when signing the informed   consent form, that they will not be provided with   the results from the research, nor will the results be available at any time.
The   subject must sign an informed consent form documenting this discussion.
The subjects will be asked to read and understand an informed consent form designed   specifically for the purpose of collecting a blood sample for genetic   research.
This   consent form tells you about   the study that you may wish to join.
This consent form may contain words that you do not understand.
This   informed consent form should   only be modified to the extent necessary to meet applicable legal   requirements.
This page is   used to collect all prior psoriasis therapies up to the point when the   subject signed the informed consent form.
Upon signing the informed consent form, the patient   is assigned the sequential number by the Investigator.
When the patient has signed the informed   consent form, the investigator or his/her staff   will telephone the Committee and provide the identifying information for the   patient.
You will be asked to sign a   separate consent form   for the extension study.
You will be asked to sign an informed consent form at screening.

ではでは。

2019年2月 5日 (火)

post-marketingか、postmarketingか

医学翻訳フリーランサーのみなさん、こんにちは。

Medical Translator NARITAです。

 

どっちでもいいんでしょうが、

イートモ対訳の見直しをしていると、

post-marketingとpostmarketingのどちらかに統一したほうがいいのかどうか、

と考えることがあります。

 

そこで、PMDAサイトとFDAサイトで調べてみました。

結果は両方ともほぼ半々。

やはりどっちでもいいということでしょうか。

 

当面、イートモではどちらかに統一することはせず、

今後の状況を見ながら、必要に応じて修正していくことにします。

フットワークが軽いことがイートモのいいところ。

 

せっかくなので、イートモ対訳を紹介しておきます。

イートモの収録用ファイルの画面です。

 

【post-marketingを含む対訳】

Shihango11

Shihango12

Shihango13

Shihango14

Shihango15

 

【postmarketingを含む対訳】

Shihango21

Shihango22

 

なお、post-marketing clinical studyは「製造販売後臨床試験」としました。これについても今後の情勢変化に応じて、必要ならば速攻で修正していきます。

 

ではでは。

2019年2月 2日 (土)

Standard Operating Procedure

寒い中、医学翻訳の仕事や勉強、お疲れさまです。

Medical Translator NARITAです。

 

イートモ対訳の見直しをしていると、いろいろ気付くことがあります。

皆さんご存知、Standard Operating Procedure。

SOP。

英訳では問題ないのですが、和訳の場合とか、イートモ対訳を作成する場合には対応する日本語をどうするか。

標準業務手順書

標準作業手順書

標準操作手順書

三通り出てきます。

 

迷ったときはPMDAサイトか、Google先生で調べます。

 

標準業務手順書と標準作業手順書が多い様子。

標準操作手順書もあるけど、実験とか機械操作の文脈で使われることが多いようです。 

治験関係では、

標準業務手順書

標準作業手順書

が多い様子。

 

とりあえず、イートモでは、

標準業務手順書《標準作業手順書》

と掲載しておきます。

必要に応じて修正、変更します。フットワークが軽いのがイートモのいいところ。

 

念のためですが、いつも書いているように、迷ったときはクライアントの指示や資料に従ってください。あるいは、翻訳会社に判断させてください。イートモはあくまでも参考資料です

 

Standard Operating Procedureで検索したときのイートモデータベースの画面です(イートモで検索した結果ではありません)。ご参考まで。

Sop1

Sop2

英文だけというけち臭いことをしないで、英文と和文の両方を提示しています。w

2019年1月19日 (土)

The usualで始まる英文

すべてに当てはまるわけではないでしょうが、医薬系の文書の場合、"The usual"で始まる英文センテンスは「通常、~」と和訳すると自然な和文(医薬分野で情報交換に使われるタイプの和文)になることが多いようです。

 

以下にイートモ対訳を1つだけ提示します。コピペできます。

   
The usual adult dose for oral use is   10 mg as Compound A immediately before bedtime. 通常、成人には化合物Aとして10mgを就寝直前に経口投与する

 

他の"The usual"で始まるイートモ対訳の英文です。

和文は提示しません。

いずれも、「通常、~」の形式で処理できます。

                 
The usual adult dose for oral use is 10 mg of Drug A daily in two to   three divided doses after meals.
The usual adult dose is 50 mg of   Drug A per oral twice a day in the morning and evening.
The usual dose for prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in   critically ill patients is 40 mg daily for 14 days.
The usual dose of 10 mg is   administered once daily for up to 4 weeks.
The usual dose of cyclosporine is 4 to 5 mg/kg per day, given in two   equally divided doses.
The usual form of corticosteroid   therapy is prednisone, beginning with 20 mg/day and increasing the dose   gradually until a satisfactory clinical response is obtained, or until a   daily dose of 50-60 mg is reached.
The usual initial dosage of Drug A is 100 mg daily, given in two divided   doses.
The usual practice has been to   initiate an alternate-day schedule, which diminishes the side effects.
The usual recommended oral dose of Drug A in adults and adolescents   older than 16 years is 1.0 mg once daily.

 

英文と和文の両方を知っていないと、和文を見て瞬間的に英文が思い浮かびません。

英訳と和訳の両方できることが理想なのでしょう。

2019年1月 8日 (火)

コピペ

医学翻訳の学習中のみなさん、こんにちは。

Medical Translator NARITAです。

 

メカ音痴のMedical Translator NARITAにはココログへのイートモサンプルの貼り付け方がよくわからなくて、和文の右側が切れている状態になっています。

http://i-honyaku.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2019/01/washout.html

とか

http://i-honyaku.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2019/01/colonizationcol.html

とか。

 

ワードに変換してPDFにして、リンクすればいいんですが、ちょっと面倒くさくて。。。

 

今気づいたのですが、コピーして、ワードとかメモ帳などにペーストできるようです。英文と和文のすべてをコピペできます。

医学翻訳の勉強に利用してください。

 

ちょっと思ったのですが、宣伝用とは言え、これだけ有用な情報を無料で提供するのはどうかなと。。。

http://i-honyaku.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2018/12/post-3ac8.html

http://i-honyaku.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2018/03/post-bd22.html

 

つまり、高額ではないけど、イートモに価値を見出してくださって、注文して、購入してくださっている方のことを思うと、貴重な情報を無料で提供するわけにはいかないのではないかと思ったのです。

http://i-honyaku.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2018/01/post-b61d.html

 

イートモの宣伝と情報提供の中間を狙っていこうかなと。

ま、医学翻訳ブログをフォローしてくださっている方はお気づきだと思いますが、Medical Translator NARITAなんて者は気分屋で、いーかげん。思いつきで動くやつですので、医学翻訳ブログのコンテンツはころころ変わることをご了承ください。

 

なお、1月31日に次期バージョン(イートモ6.2)を発売する予定です。

イートモ6.1の対訳データは古くなるので、イートモ6.1のイートモサンプルは削除しました。

http://i-honyaku.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/cat24141906/index.html

今後はイートモ6.2に基づきイートモサンプルを紹介してまいります。

2019年1月 7日 (月)

washout

医学翻訳フリーランサーのみなさん、午後もお仕事、お疲れさまです。

Medical Translator NARITAは15時頃までイートモ作業して、その後は心療内科に行ってきます。

 

ところで、みなさんご存知washout。

最近では「休薬」で訳が決まりつつあるようです。

clinicalではそれで大丈夫ですが、nonclinicalのin vitro関係になると単純ではないよね。

 

例えば、

Washout of the drug was done by superfusion of the cells with a drug-free solution using a peristaltic pump.

単純じゃないでしょ。これも対訳化してイートモに収録します。

 

ライフサイエンス辞書

washout

(薬物などの)   洗い流し,    洗い出し

元々はそういう意味だったのでしょうが、治験関係で使われるようになって、「休薬」という訳が当てられるようになったのかもしれません。

ま、我々は学者じゃないので、訳の由来なんてどうでもいいのですが、「本剤の洗い流し」ではいまいち。

Google先生で調べても、持田製薬さんの文書に、

また、皮膚障害を発現した症例の中で、. 本剤の洗い流しが不十分であった症例もあり、本剤を使用される際は「必ず」洗い流していただくよう、文言. の追記を致しました。

という記載がありますが、これは文字通り「洗い流すこと」。

和訳の場合、カタカナ表記でしのいで、とにかく納品しようかと考えるわけです。

一応Google先生で確認すると、

これらのデータは、本剤のウォッシュアウトに必要な十分な時間を設けてミガーラスタットによるα-Gal A 活性阻害を最小限にすれば、ファブリー病患者の線維芽細胞において、ミガーラスタットによるα-Gal A 活性増加はGL-3濃度を低下させることを示している。

とか

かん流液を用いた対照実験後、ミガーラスタット塩酸塩を低濃度から順にそれぞれ5 個の細胞に曝露後、ウォッシュアウトした。

とか

現場の文書に使われています。リンクが切れているようです。

http://app.cocolog-nifty.com/t/app/weblog/post?blog_id=722376

 

代わりにPMDAのサイトのもの。

http://www.pmda.go.jp/drugs/2015/P20150601007/100888000_22700AMX00649_A100_1.pdf#page=7

 

今はこのような文書がネットからいくらでも入手できるからすごい。

Medical Translator NARITAが医学翻訳ブログで何度も書いているように、こういう現場の文書をライフサイエンス辞書やGoogle、イートモ、英じ郎で調べながら、訳文を完成させるトレーニングを続けるしかないんです。

今の時代、自分で現場の仕事と同じ経験ができるんだから、翻訳スクールに行って講師の話を受け身的に聞いてもしょうがないと思うけどなー。

みなさん翻訳スクールに行けば「魔法の法則」を教えてくれると思っているようで。coldsweats01

http://i-honyaku.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2018/10/post-cae9.html

 

さて、せっかくなので、イートモでもwashoutを調べてみました。

例によって、和文の右側が切れています。

青字がnonclinicalのin vitro関係ということなりまかね。やはり、イートモには治験関係が多いので、今後はnonclinical関係も意識して増やしていこうと思います。

  
A   3-month washout period was required before baseline evaluation of women using   postmenopausal hormones at initial screening.
A 4-week washout period from HMG-CoA   reductase inhibitors and cholesterol absorption inhibitors is required.
A single oral dose of one 20-mg   tablet was to be administered after breakfast followed by ≥ 7 days of the   washout period.
After a 1-week washout period, the procedures were repeated with the   alternate rinse.
After a 2-week washout period,   subjects were crossed over to receive the other medication for 8 days.
All subjects who were on combination therapy at entry must undergo a 28-day   washout period of DMARDs other than Drug A.
Changes   seen in the liver and stomach were still present at the end of the 1-month   washout period, although with a lower incidence and severity, indicating an   ongoing recovery process.
Drug A caused total suppression of HIV production in ABC cells for 20 days   after washout of the drug and replacement with fresh culture medium.
Drug A was administered as either a   single dose or as two divided doses given 12 hours apart, with a 7-day   washout period between treatments.
Washout of the drug was done by superfusion   of the cells with a drug-free solution using a peristaltic pump.
Due to the short half-life of Drug   A, a washout of 1 day was considered adequate.
Each cycle consisted of 3 daily intravenous administrations   followed by a 4-day washout period.
Each patient   received inhaled Drug A or placebo twice daily for a month, with a one-week   washout period between treatments.
Eligible patients using antihypertensive treatments will, under the supervision   of the investigator, stop their antihypertensive treatments and enter a   washout phase of 2 weeks.
Eligible patients were enrolled   into a 2-week washout period, during which the number of incontinence   episodes and frequency of micturition were recorded for 7 consecutive days   using micturition diaries.
Exercise tolerance tests were performed at baseline; 20 to 24 hours   after dosing at Weeks 4, 8, and 12; and at the end of the washout period.
From Day 16 to Day 28, no   medication was administered (washout period).
Healthy subjects were studied at baseline, after cocoa supplementation   for 6 weeks, and after a 6-week washout period.
Mean serum phosphorus rose from 6.8   mg/dl at prewashout to 9.1 mg/dl at the end of the washout period.
No washout period separated Treatment B and Treatment C.
Rabbit   aortic strips were exposed to various sympathomimetic amines; after washout   of the amines the relaxation of the strips was measured.
Ten healthy subjects were randomized to receive single doses of Drug A 20 mg SC or   10 mg IV infusion with a 4-week washout period between doses.
The duration of plasma sample   collection and the washout time between treatments were not long enough to   appropriately characterize the AUC, ke, and t1/2 of Drug A.
The duration of this washout period was not sufficient to characterize the   rate of loss of the treatment effect.
The effect was largely reversible   after washout of Drug A.
The first treatment period, the washout period, and the second treatment   period were each eight weeks long.
The   one-week washout period between Treatment A (Drug A alone) and Treatment B   (Drug B alone) was used in order to determine steady-state pharmacokinetic   parameters for Drug A without the influence of Drug B.
The patients were given a second opportunity to rate their current status on   the same questionnaire on which they had previously marked their end of   washout scores.
The study was divided into a   20-week double-blind active treatment phase followed by a 10-week washout   period.
The vehicle group and the 30 mg/kg group included their recovery subgroup   in which reversibility of the toxicity was investigated during 13-week   washout period.
The   washout period for any previous medical therapy for Disease A was adequate.
There was no evidence of rebound worsening of lung function in the Drug A   group after the washout period.
Thereafter, patients underwent a   one-week NSAID-free washout period.
These values returned to baseline levels over a 4-week washout period after   cessation of Drug A administration.
Treatment periods were separated by   a washout period of ≥ 7 days.
Treatment was followed by a two-week, single-blind washout period during   which all patients received placebo.

2019年1月 2日 (水)

colonizationとか、colonizeとか

医学翻訳フリーランサーのみなさん、こんにちは。

Medical Translator NARITAです。

 

さて、

colonizationとか、colonizeとか。

なんとなくわかるが、いざ訳そうとすると迷います。

 

ライフサイエンス辞書では、

colonization

コロニー形成,    細菌叢,    集落形成,    (細菌の)   定着

コロニー形成」を訳語にするとしっくりこない。

 

コロニー形成」は実験室での細菌などの培養で使う用語のようです。

https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%82%B3%E3%83%AD%E3%83%8B%E3%83%BC%E5%BD%A2%E6%88%90%E5%8D%98%E4%BD%8D

臨床系の文書で「コロニー形成」がしっくりこないのはそのためかもしれません。

 

ロゼッタさんの究極の辞書で調べましたが、どうなんでしょう。

https://www.sangyo-honyaku.jp/dictionaries/index/search_info:%E3%82%B3%E3%83%AD%E3%83%8B%E3%83%BC%E5%BD%A2%E6%88%90%E7%8E%87_%E9%9D%9E%E8%87%A8%E5%BA%8A

 

とても参考になる解説が見つかりました。

http://www.wound-treatment.jp/wound014.htm

日本語の臨床系の文書ではInfectionとColonizationを厳密に区別していないような印象があります。

以上の情報に基づき、イートモではcolonizationとcolonizeの和訳を整理しなおしました。

 

イートモ対訳データベースからcolonizationまたはcolonizeを含む対訳を抽出してご参考まで提示しました。ちゃんと表示するしかたがわからないので、和文の右端が切れてしまってすみません。

なお、イートモ対訳は随時修正しています。

必要ならば速攻で修正します。

ですから、イートモユーザー様は他のツールにコピペせず、なるべくイートモシステム内で利用してください。

http://i-honyaku.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2018/10/pdicebwin4-a2b8.html

 

A person colonized with a cag+, s1a   vacA, iceA1 strain is more likely to develop duodenal ulceration than a   person harboring a cag, s2 vacA, iceA2 strain.
Bifidobacterium bifidum is the predominant   bacterial species in the intestine of breast-fed infants, where it presumably   prevents colonization by potential pathogens.
Central venous catheters coated or   impregnated with antimicrobial agents effectively prevent microbial   colonization and catheter-related bloodstream infections.
Colonization induces chronic gastric   inflammation which can progress to a variety of diseases.
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the   gastric mucosa, where it appears to persist throughout the host's life unless   the patient is treated.
Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative organism that is able to colonize the human   stomach.
If a suitable vaccine were   available (research projects are ongoing) to prevent H pylori colonization,   would we increase or decrease the disease burden?
It is likely that H. pylori has colonized our stomachs since well before we   became humans.
It is possible to acquire infection   from a partner with genital or oral colonization.
Large numbers of people are now passing their lives without H. pylori   colonization.
Little is known, however, about   their significance in oral colonization and cariogenicity.
Lymphoid proliferation is a common feature of H. pylori   colonization. 
Monitoring trends in colonization   rates should provide clues.
Much of the recent work in tackling methicillin-resistant   Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has focused on hygiene in hospitals, but it is   unclear how much hospital staff know about the treatment and management of   patients who are colonized or infected with MRSA.
Normal human skin is colonized with   bacteria; different areas of the body have varied total aerobic bacterial   counts.
Once S. aureus successfully adheres to and colonizes host tissues,   the expression of specific genes is altered, resulting in a phenotype that is   more resistant to antibiotics.
One explanation is that the stomach   appears to be colonized by different organisms than those in patients with   hypochlorhydria.
People carrying H. pylori may be slightly shorter (and possibly   leaner) than their uncolonized counterparts.
Peptic ulcer disease and gastric   cancer have been declining in the 20th century in precisely those parts of   the world in which the prevalence of H. pylori colonization has declined.
The hands of health care workers may become   persistently colonized with pathogenic flora (e.g., S. aureus), gram-negative   bacilli, or yeast.
The   microorganism colonizes the nose and paranasal sinuses, spreading into   adjacent tissues by invading blood vessels.
The prevalence of H. pylori colonization is about 30% in the United States   and other developed countries as opposed to > 80% in many developing   countries.
The   published literature on this is often difficult to interpret because of   heterogeneity in the density of bacterial colonization and in host immune   response.
The reasons for the decline in the prevalence of H. pylori colonization   are unknown.
The   strain defective in ABC could not colonize teeth of starch-only-eating rats.
These valves then become colonized by bacteria of low virulence.
Transient flora, which colonize the   superficial layers of the skin, are more amenable to removal by routine hand   washing.
With continuing socioeconomic development, H pylori colonization is   becoming less common.

 

2018年12月24日 (月)

"Caution"にどう続けるか

医学翻訳フリーランサーのみなさん、メリメリクリスマス。

2018121915450000_2

そんなもの関係なく、イートモ対訳の見直しをしているMedical Translator NARITAでおます。

 

イートモ対訳の見直しがcautionの部分にさしかかって、cautionの次に続く部分にはいろいろあるんだなーと気づきました。

イートモデータベースの英文のほうだけご紹介します。

和文も見たい?

和文が見たけりゃイートモ買えよ。

有用な情報はタダじゃないんだ。

情報はなんでもタダで手に入ると思ったら大間違いだぜ。

 

冗談ですよ。w

でも、ご自身の現在の実力、年齢(体力)、本気度(やる気)などを慎重に検討してから決めてくださいね。

思い付きでイートモを買っても無駄になるだけです。

http://i-honyaku.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2018/08/post-aa08.html

住宅ローンや自動車ローン、教育資金はかかるし、老後資金も用意しないといけないし、大変ですね。

年収1000万円で手取り60万円/月じゃ厳しいね。

https://smartwith.jp/money/195

医学翻訳の仕事で副収入を得るという手がありますよ。

あるいは、

旦那さんがお勤めで1000万円を稼いで、

奥さんが医学翻訳か特許翻訳の在宅仕事で500万円程度稼いでなんとか余裕が出るという感じかな。

この医学翻訳ブログでイートモサンプルをなるべくたくさん紹介しますので、参考にしてください。

 

ま、全部おぼえなくても、二つか三つ知っていれば翻訳仕事では十分です。

忘れたらイートモで調べればOK!

楽勝♪

                                             
Caution is advised in patients with depression, seizure disorders, or   liver problems.
Caution is advised when   bisphosphonates are administered with aminoglycosides.
Caution is advised when coadministering Drug A with other CYP2C9   inhibitors.
Caution is indicated when Drug A is   used with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs.
Caution is needed in the interpretation of the efficacy results in   this small dataset.
Caution is recommended in patients   with preexisting kidney disease.
Caution must be exercised with every Drug A infusion, as there were   patients who experienced their first severe reaction during later infusions.
Caution should be exercised if   alcohol is taken in combination with Drug A, due to a possible additive   sedative effect.
Caution should be exercised in patients with compromised renal function   and a history of liver disease.
Caution should be exercised when   considering the use of Drug A in patients with a history of recurrent   infection.
Caution should be exercised when herbal medicines are taken   concomitantly with Drug A.
Caution should be exercised when   using agents that are known to impair renal function.
Caution should be exercised when using these drugs together.
Caution should be observed with   administration of Drug A to elderly patients in any situation or physical   condition where risk of hemorrhage is present.
Caution should be used in administering Drug A to patients with a   history of seizure or to patients receiving concomitant medication that may   lower the seizure threshold.
Caution should be used when   considering the use of other CYP3A4 inhibitors with Drug A.
Caution should clearly be used in administering oral hormone therapy   to women with preexisting hypertriglyceridemia.
Caution(s) in Use
Caution: habit-forming
Caution: Use only as directed by a   physician.
Caution: Use only pursuant to the prescription of a physician, etc.
Caution: Use only pursuant to the   prescription or directions of a physician, etc.
Cautions must be exercised for possible onset of CNS adverse events due   to these drugs.

2018年11月 1日 (木)

「術後」

「術後に生じる安静時痛と体動痛の両方をおさえるには、多量の鎮痛薬が必要とされる。」

「術後」。

イートモで検索すればわかるように、数種類のパターンしかありません。

【ダウンロードリンク削除】

130件程度しかないので、英訳トレーニングモードで2日間ほどで英訳体験しちゃいましょう。

和文を見て瞬間的に英文が思い浮かぶレベルまで上げてください。

和文原稿の解釈さえできれば後は訳出するだけなので楽勝というレベルに上げていけば、MTの上を行けます。MTを利用する側に入れます。

Process1

MTと翻訳支援ツールをいろいろ試しましたが、医薬系翻訳作業の第1段階は、当分の間、機械翻訳にまかせられないという印象です。

逆に、第2段階がMTよりも劣る人は医薬系翻訳業界に参入できないということです。

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